An Arabic name meaning "lively," "moonlight," or "rising sun" (depending on your source; my dad says it's ancient Persian for "moonlight" which works fine for me).
Aisha bint-Abi-Bakr (who lived from about 614 to 678) was the devoted favourite wife of the prophet Mohammed and is known as the "Mother of the Believers." Some sources say she was nine when she married Mohammed; some insist she was 19 to avoid the appearance of pedophilia (which didn't mean the same thing then as it does now). After Mohammed's death, she helped her father become the first caliph (ruler) of the Muslims. Later, in opposition to the fourth caliph, Ali, she led an army into a battle known as the "Battle of the Camel": her army was victorious as long as she remained seated on her camel. Unfortunately, the other side cut the camel's legs off (!) and she was unseated, and her side lost the battle. After the loss, she retired to Medina.
Variants: Aeesha, Aeeshah, Aesha, Aeshah, Aiesha, Aieshah, Aishah, Aisia, Aisiah, Asha, Ashah, Ashia, Ashiah, Asia, Asiah, Ayeesa, Ayeesah, Ayeesha, Ayeeshah, Ayeisa, Ayeisah, Ayeisha, Ayeishah, Ayisa, Ayisah, Ayisha, Ayishah, Ieasha, Ieashah, Eiashia, Ieashiah, Iesha, Ieshah, Ieesha, Ieeshah, Ieeshia, Ieeshiah, Yiesha, Yieshah.
Find more information on the original Ayse here.